City center view across Dnipro river
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Dnepropetrovsk (russian pronunciation) or Dnipropetrovsk (ukrainian pronunciation) - the third (in the terms of population - 1062.9 thousands of inhabitants) city, the region center, is situated on the steep banks of the Dnepr (russian) or Dnipro (ukrainian pronunciation) river, in the place of the influx of the huge left feeder in it - the river Samara. Yekaterinoslav (the name of Dnepropetrovsk till 1929 after the Katherine II) is related to those cities, which appeared during the colonization of the south Ukrainian land by the Russian empire.

The city was established by G. Potyemkin in 1777 in the place of junction of the rivers Samara and Kil'chen' (in the region of contemporary Novomoskovsk) as a government (county) town. It turned out soon that the place was chosen wrong and in 1784 the building of the county town was replaced to the high right bank of the Dnepr. Officially the city was established in 1787 by Katherine II and Austrian emperor Joseph II when during the traveling of the Russian empress along the acquired south lands they put the first brick in the building of Preobrazhenskiy Cathedral.

After Katherine II died in 1797 her son Pavel I renamed the city in Novorossiysk. But in 1802 the city changed its name for the previous one and it become the center of the huge Yekaterinoslav county. Like the majority of Ukrainian cities, which were established in the XVII century, the history can be seen from its cultural monuments. From the first stage when the center of the homonymous county was born and formed, Potyemkinskiy palace (1790) remained, the building of the secretariat of the main officer of the South Russia colonists general I. Inzov (1818) and the hugest woolen factory in the South of Russia (1825) built in 1794.

Closer to the middle of XIXth century Svyato-Preobrazhenskyi Cafedral'nyy Cathedral (1830 - 1835, the architect is A. Zakharov), the building of the country hospital (1840 - 1850) were built. The next stage of the city event is connected with the beginning of the industrial exploitation of deposits Krivorozhskiy iron-oxid basin (1881) and the beginning of work of the Aleksandrovskiy yuzhnorusskiy (south Russian) metallurgical (later Bryanskiy) plant.

In the end of the XIXth - beginning of the XXth century Yekaterinoslav is rapidly turns into the hugest industrial center, which can not but influence the architectural image of the city. At this time a lot of buildings were established, which define the image of the central part of Dnepropetrovsk till this time. The buildings of the English club (1890), Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining College (1899 - 1900), the city authority (1901), commercial college (1899 - 1912), Zimniy (Winter) theatre (1906 - 1907) in which the Russian Drama theatre is situated. During the Soviet times many different statesmen took the floor in this building, and the Second vserossiyskiy (all Russian) meeting of the Soviet Republics was held, the memorial table (1978) reminds of this event.

In the beginning of the XXthe century the monuments of A. Pushkin was established (1901 - the sculptor I. Ginzburg, the architect G. Panafutin), the oldest one remaining in the city. On the eve of the First World War in Yekaterinoslav the building of the social meetings (1912), the hotel "Astoria" (1912), Svyato-Nikolaevskaya Church and many other establishments were built.

In 1926 Yekaterinoslav was renamed in Dnepropetrovsk after the political statesman G. Petrovkiy (1878 - 1958), and the monument devoted to him was established in 1976 (sculptor K. Chekanev, architect V. Sotnikov) on the square in front of the railway station. During the Soviet times Dnepropetrovsk became the huge industrial center of Ukraine and in 1970s the population of the city became more than 1 million of people.

The Soviet architectural heritage is rather diverse, beginning from the typical buildings in the fifties till the architecture of the epoch of standstill the seventies, the good example of which is the building of the city circus. The Shevchenko park, the part of which is situated on the Monastery Island, and the city park after Lazar' Globa became the decoration of Dnepropetrovsk.

During the "after war" period of its history a lot of monuments devoted the revolution and war events were established in the city, like the monuments of V. Chkalov (1981, sculptor V. Nebozhenko, architect V. Polozhiy). Not so often one can see the monuments devoted to the people involved in culture and science (the monument of N. V. Gogol', 1959). After the century when A. Pol' died (1832 - 1890) the citizens of Dnepropetrovsk immortalized the memory about him, the statesman and archeologist, who discovered the iron-oxid basin and supported the development of the city. After the Great Patriotic War Dnepropetrovsk became the great forge and factory of the political and economical personnel for the Soviet Union and Ukraine. The most famous from them are L. Brezhnev, V. Scherbitskiy, the second president of Ukraine L. Kuchma.
Weather and climate in Dnepropetrovsk region.
The climate in our region is warm and temperate continental. The river Dnepr has a strong impact on the microclimate, the humidity of the air increases in the spring-autumn period. The winter is relatively mild, with the cloudy weather and much fog. The average temperature in January is minus 4.5 - 5.0 degrees. Often there are thaws till plus 5 - 10 degrees. But once in 10 - 15 years the temperature of the air in the night time can drop to minus 25 degrees and below. The summer is warm; there are separate years when there are droughts. The average temperature is July is plus 22 - 23 degrees. The average day temperatures can reach 30 - 33, and the hottest is 37 - 40 C. There are 510 - 530 millimeters of precipitation for the year. Often there are thunderstorms in the summer period. The frequency of wind is 6 meters per second. One can say for sure that the winter in our city is not the best period of the year, with changing and not stable weather. It is cold enough, the average temperature during the day time is minus 4 - 5 degrees. There are some days when the temperature of the air in the night can reach minus 25 degrees and more, but this happens not often, like once in 10 - 15 years. The absolute minimum is - 34 degrees, but for the last couple of years the temperature didn't drop below - 29 degrees.

The frost is endured worse due to the humidity of the river Dnepr and a strong wind. The weather becomes cold in the end of November (after the 20th of November approximately), when the average temperature drops down below zero. The steady snow covering appears in the end of Decembers and stays in average till the end of February. However, it is the New Year's holiday and it is plus 7 degrees outside, don't be surprised, - the thaws happen much oftener than the severe frosts. Once in several years there are winters when the snow lasts for several days, and often with some breaks too.

The most difficult to endure is December; though it seems rather strange, as always there are sudden differential of the temperature and severe frosts. For this month the following is also typical: thick clouds, humid winds, glaciations... The city is not ready for sure to such severe conditions: the pipes split, the roads are damaged, and the transport goes very bad, often irregularity in power supply. The temperature outside below 20 degrees celsius is accepted as a disaster. But this doesn't last for a long period of time - usually it is for couple of weeks a year.

January is usually much colder, but more flattened, the day temperatures are about minus 4 - 5 degrees. February is the month when the snow starts to disappear and there is first melting water: often the temperature can be above zero. In general, in February snow becomes dirtier, the days become longer, and the spring approaches. Physically the winter lasts till the middle of March, when the temperature steadily changes over zero. The last snow can last sometimes till the end of the month... The spring always comes unexpectedly and headily. In average on the 14 - 16th of March the temperature changes over zero and that is why snow usually doesn't last for a long time. There are still strong winds, it is dusty and cloudy after winter, but the beginning of the life is very close: when is it the first week of April one can forget about the frosts...

In April the average temperature is 8 - 9 degrees C. It is better to visit the city beginning from the 20th of the forth month till the middle of May. The sky is usually pure and brightly blue. It is not very hot, and everything is fresh, everything is in full blossom, everything is green and filled with moisture.

The moisture is the rare occasion in our place: by the middle of the summer all the grass will be burnt by the sun, there will be again the droughts and dry hot winds. Sometimes there can be freezing in May, but it is more like an exception, the more frequent situation is when it is above 30 degrees. In the first half of the month the day temperatures are usually above 20 degrees. Gradually the heat comes, and consequently the summer comes as well... In the end of May it is possibly already to swim in the river Dnepr. June is the month when all the plants are in the full blossom. It is warm and sunny, there are occasionally some rains in the kind of thunderstorms. The day temperatures are about 25 degrees. By the end of the month it becomes much hotter, in the daytime it can be 35 - 37 degrees. The maximum was fixed when it was 40 degrees C. It is possible to survive only early in the morning, in the evening and in the night. The city acquires the Arabic tincture, and in the daytime it dies off.

July is a hot month. The droughts in this period can last for couple of weeks. The day temperature above 30 degrees C is absolutely normal thing. From the middle of June and till the end of July in the night the temperature rarely drops below 18 degrees and often it is more than 20 degrees. It is the high time for the night walking. It starts to cool down in August and it is the time for the first long rainfalls. By the end of the month the burnt fields start to revive, to decorate the first month of autumn - September. September in Dnepropetrovsk is the warm and mild month. The chilly weather is accepted as benefit, and the leaves on the trees start to change their color only by the end of the month. It will become colder only in the second week of October (the average temperature will drop below 10 degrees). But the "Indian Summer" will remind about the past and it can be 25 degrees in the middle of the month. The real 'golden" autumn starts in the end of the month, when everything is covered with red and yellow color.

In the first dates of November the temperature of the air will drop below 5 degrees. It will be still about 10 degrees in the day time, but in the night there will be often freezing and light frosts. In the second week of November you can forget about warm weather. In the night the frosts can reach minus 10 degrees. But often, the temperature +7 - 10 remains till the middle of December, and sometimes it is possible to celebrate the New year with the rain.

The leaf fall ("Lystopad'' in Ukrainian, November in English) is fully approves its name, as by the end of the month there are only bare branches and black bodies. From the 20th of November there is steady cold weather and the first confident snow....